D5.2 Executive Summary
Given the significant and growing role of the standardisation in the telecommunications and electricity network, it is critical that the main standardisation bodies and available standards are identified and examined. Substantial amount of research, development, and innovation activities have taken place in the smart grid landscape. A number of authorities have taken a leadership in the process of standards review, development and modifications.
This deliverable presents the results of the standards assessment and identifies relevant standards based on the Mas2tering use cases as well as provides recommendations for combining them in the project. The set of telecom and energy standards is identified based on existing smart grid systems, Smart Grid Conceptual Model, Grid Architecture Model (SGAM) Framework and various reports published by the standardisation authorities (mainly CEN-CENELEC-ETSI Smart Grid Coordination Group).
The following are the three use cases in the project, which are detailed in the deliverable D2.1. Further refinement of the use cases will be available later in the project as part of the deliverable D6.1.
Use Case 1: Secure and effective connection of commercial home energy boxes with public DSO smart meter and consumption profile optimization,
Use Case 2: Decentralised energy management in a local area with Multi-Agents,
Use Case 3: Enhancing grid reliability, performance and resilience.
The work in this deliverable is aligned with the international standardisation procedures and activities in the smart grid including the work required by the European Commission’s mandate M/490.
In addition to the standards suitability, a number of equally important aspects have been discussed in the standards evaluation including problems, benefits, usability, interoperability and security. As a result of the evaluation, it has been decided that many of the standards will be useful in the project including FIPA-ACL, IEC 61850, CIM (IEC 61968/61970/62325), OpenADR, ZigBee, IEC 62351, IEEE PC37.240, IEEE 2030, IEEE 1250 and GS OSG 001.
This deliverable also provides brief recommendations regarding the combination and improvement of available telecom and energy standards such as IEEE PC37.240, IEC 62351 (for cybersecurity), CIM (for software and data model design), and IEEE 2030 standard (for interoperability) are briefly discussed in this document.
Importantly, gaps still exist in communication standards, protocols, and technologies particularly in relation to interoperability and security of communication systems, despite of the significant work being carried out by the standardisation organisations worldwide.
D5.2 Table of Contents
- Document Information
- Executive summary
- Table of Contents
- List of Figures
- Abbreviations and Acronyms
- 1 Introduction
- 1.1 Structure of the document13
- 2 Standardisation in Telecommunication and Smart Grids and Relevance to Mas2tering
- 2.1 Mas2tering Use Cases
- 2.2 Standardisation Organisations
- 2.3 Standards selection methodology
- 3 Standards assessment in Mas2tering
- 3.1 Evaluation Approach
- 3.1.1 Evaluation Template
- 3.1.2 Standards Evaluated
- 3.2 Evaluations and Recommendations
- 3.2.1 Integration and Interface Standards
- 3.2.2 Physical and Data Link Layer Standards
- 3.2.3 Networking Standards
- 3.2.4 Energy Management Standards
- 3.2.5 Smart Metering Standards
- 3.2.6 Smart Grid Monitoring and Performance Standards
- 4 Standards in EU Smart Metering Solutions
- 4.1 Smart Metering in UK
- 4.2 Smart Metering in France
- 4.3 Smart Metering in Italy
- 4.4 Smart Metering in Belgium
- 5 Conclusions and Recommendations Summary
- Annex A Standardisation in Telecommunication and Smart Grids
- A.1 ISO/IEC
- A.2 ETSI
- A.3 IEEE
- A.4 NIST
- A.5 EURELECTRIC
- A.6 CEN/CENELEC/ETSI Smart Grid Coordination Group
- A.7 SGIP
- Annex B Standards selection methodology
- B.1 Smart Grid Systems
- B.2 Smart Grid Conceptual Model
- B.3 SGAM Framework
- B.4 Smart Grid Generic Use Cases
- Annex C Evaluation of the Standards (Further details)
- C.1 Integration and Interface Standards
- C.2 Physical and Data Link Layer Standards
- C.3 Networking Standards
- C.4 Energy Management Standards
- C.5 Smart Metering Standards
- C.6 Smart Grid Monitoring and Performance Standards
- Annex D Standards in EU Smart Metering Solutions
- D.1 Smart Metering in UK
- D.2 Smart Metering in Belgium
An overview of the main International and European standardisation authorities and their standards within the scope of telecom and energy grids is provided in Annex A. The section summarizes directives developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Committee (IEC) as well as lists a selection of standards in the field recommended by IEC. A number of important telecom and smart grid standards are described based on their recommendation by:
· the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI),
· the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE),
· the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST),
· the Union of the Electricity Industry- Eurelectric (EURELECTRIC),
· CEN-CENELEC-ETSI Smart Grid Coordination Group, and
· Smart Grid Interoperability Panel (SGIP).
The standards are categorized into six sets for easier understanding of their area of application and usefulness. However, this categorization does not mean that each standard falls exclusively under the specific category as overlaps exist in the scope of the standards. Standards focusing only on security are covered in D4.1.
|Integration and Interface Standards||FIPA-ACL, IEC 61968/61970/62325 CIM standards, IEEE 1615:2007, IEC 62541, IEEE 2030|
|Physical and Data Link Layer Standards||DSL standards, EDGE, GPRS, GSM, PLC standards, SDH/SONET, LTE/LTE-A, IEEE 802.11, WiMAX, LAN, GS OSG 001|
|Networking Standards||IEC 61850, ZigBee, VPN, DNP3, IETF RFC 6272, ISO/IEC 14908:2012|
|Energy Management Standards||USEF, OpenADR, ISO/IEC 15067|
|Smart Metering Standards||IEEE 1377, ISO/IEC 15045, ETSI TS 103 908 PLT, ETSI TR 102 691, EN 13757, ETSI TR 103 240, IEC 62056|
|Smart Grid Monitoring and Performance Standards||IEC 60870, IEEE 1250, IEEE 1159:1995, IEEE 1613:2009, IEEE P1547, CLC TS 50549-1, IEEE 1646:2004, IEEE C37.1|
Table 3 – Categories of standards evaluated in Mas2tering
This section is presenting results and a summary of findings including mapping of standards/technologies to the Mas2tering Use Cases and to the seven layers of the OSI Model. Additionally, a brief overview of recommendations outlined in section 4 is given at the end of the section. The main focus of deliverable D5.2 has been on selection, evaluation, and recommendation of telecommunication and smart energy standards for the project. Special attention has been given to identifying gaps in the evaluated standards and proposing possible future enhancements.
A final list of standards with a clear identification of their use case based relevance for the project is contained in Table 13. The key words “High”, “Medium”, “Low” and “None” used in the table below are to be interpreted as follows:
– “High” means that standard is highly relevant to the specific use case.
– “Medium” means that standard is moderately relevant to the specific use case.
– “Low” means that standard has low relevance to the specific use case.
– “None” means that standard is not relevant to the specific use case.
|Use Case Relevance
[High, Medium, Low, None]
|Integration and Interface Standards|
|IEC 61968/61970/62325 CIM standards||High||High||High|
|IEC 62541–OPC UA||Low||Medium||High|
|Physical and Data Link Layer Standards|
|Digital Subscriber Line (DSL: ADSL/SHDSL/VDSL)||Medium||Medium||Medium|
|Power-line communication (PLC)||Medium||Medium||Medium|
|Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)/ Synchronous Optical Network (SONET)||Medium||Medium||Medium|
|Long-term Evolution (LTE)/LTE-A||Medium||Medium||Medium|
|GS OSG 001 (OSGP)||High||None||None|
|IETF RFC 6272||Low||Medium||Medium|
|ISO/IEC 14908:2012 series 1, 2, 3, 4||High||Medium||None|
|Energy Management Standards|
|ISO/IEC TR 15067-3||High||High||None|
|Smart Metering Standards|
|ETSI TS 103 908 PLT||Low||High||None|
|ETSI TR 102 691||High||High||None|
|ETSI TR 103 240||High||High||Low|
|IEC 61334 selected||High||High||Low|
|Smart Grid Monitoring and Performance Standards|
|CLC TS 50549-1||None||Low||High|
Table 13 Relevance of evaluated standards, protocols, and technologies to Mas2tering use cases
Mapping of the important telecommunication and energy standards, protocols, and technologies to the seven layer OSI model is shown in Figure 1.
Figure 1 – Mapping of standards, protocols, and technologies to OSI model
Finally, the following is a summary of recommendations based on the detailed analysis of standards:
- From the messaging perspective, FIPA-ACL has a ‘ready to use’ support libraries covering the full network stack in the chosen MAS platform framework for Mas2tering, namely JADE, thus is a low overhead option. Further ‘add-ons’ are available to assist in the encoding and encoding of messages at the application layer and also for the realisation of security in JADE. However as expected, no direct support for interfacing to smart grid devices would be achieved without further effort. Thus a gateway would be needed if FIPA-ACL were to be used. The adoption of the prevalent data model DLMS in ACL content would facilitate simple mapping between protocols together with exchange transactions compliant to COSEM seem pertinent. In the scope of a gateway the use of the scalable and extensible framework ISO/IEC 15045 would seem desirable.
- The Common Information Model (CIM) (IEC 61968/61970/62325) is the model on which FIPA-ACL messages will be based. CIM standards provide basis for the design of generic communications for power systems. The standards can be used for guiding design choices. It is expected that the project will specify one or more Mas2tering CIM profiles, that is a subset of the CIM classes and attributes for specific Mas2tering context. The use of the CIM simplifies the interoperability between different software applications. Instead of defining a translator to convert to and from every other party company´s property format, Mas2tering will focus only in a single translator to convert to and from the CIM based data.
- IEEE 2030 (A series of standards for Smart Grid Interoperability) is a reference for smart grid security challenges overview, but no solutions. This standard is also expected to deal with the interoperability aspects.
- OpenADR aims to automate the demand response to control energy demand and is among standards recommended in the project description. OpenADR “A” is sometimes called the bugged profile as the limited services or devices need the “B” profile to be operated in proper manners. We strongly recommend the developers to go for “B” profile and then down scale to profile “A” if the scenarios are not using some services. Moreover, profile “B” offers more security options than “A”. The cybersecurity tasks will need to take in consideration the validation and the process of certificate’s provisioning on long periods such as 20 years.
- Although not a standard, it is recommended to use the USEF framework as a reference background to support the definition of the Mas2tering framework and enable the comparison of the Mas2tering project with other projects in the smart grid area. In particular, the market mechanisms described in USEF should be used as reference for the definition of the local optimization process sketched in use case 2 and use case 3. This would give concreteness to the Mas2tering solution from both technical and business perspectives, without imposing any constraint to its development.
- OSG protocol could be useful for addressing communication between smart meter and aggregator for pricing purposes. Standard includes interesting functionalities such as device discovery. Because its name indicates a wider scope, there is a lot of room for improvement in this standard as it is missing many elements of a smart grid, for instance real time interaction with DER.
- IEEE 1250 (Guide for identifying and improving voltage quality in power systems) outlines detailed description of challenge for electricity quality, useful to select which aspect to focus on.
- IEC 62357, IEC 62056, IEC 61968, IEC 61970, and IEEE 1547 are recommended in the project description to assist with the specification of the architecture.
- IEEE 802.11 could be useful for handling communication between devices compatible with this standard.
- IEC 61499 is proposed to provide the function blocks comprising algorithms and execution control charts (ECC) in the project.
- Selected PLC standard(s) seem attractive and relevant to the project but their potential adoption will have to be use case driven. It is too early to provide a recommendation for a specific PLC standard at this stage of the project.
- IEEE 1159:1995: Recommended Practice for Monitoring Electrical Power Quality outlines guidelines for references for monitoring power quality parameters by means of proper instrumentation and also contains a section about communication.
- IEEE 1613:2009: Recommended Practice for Network Communications in substations provides practices for combining energy and telecom elements.
- IEEE 1646:2004: Standard Communication Delivery Time Performance Requirements for Electric Power Substation Automation can be useful for defining requirements of Linkboxes in Mas2tering.
- Additionally, security standards such as IEEE PC37.240, IEEE 2030 are mainly evaluated in WP4 to assess their usefulness in securing the Mas2tering platform. IEC 62351 could assist in securing the transactions between agents in the MAS environments. IEEE PC37.240 and IEEE 2030 may be used as guidelines for the design of secure Mas2tering platform.
In summary, some of the standards have wider scopes e.g. applicable to substations cf. domestic meters etc., while some have specific and desirable technical features. In this context a further refinement of standards selection will be required in subsequent stages of the project.